Metabolic disturbances in severely depressed (in)patients
Depressive disorders are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be (partially) mediated by components of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), MetSyn is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (elevated waist circumference (WC), elevated serum triglycerides, reduced serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure (BP), and elevated fasting serum glucose), that increases the risk for diabetes mellitus and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Along with MetSyn components, closely related characteristics (LDL, cholesterol, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio) are well established risk factors for CVD. Since metabolic disturbances might be more prevalent among depressed patients who are more severely affected, they might be at higher risk for CVD onset. The aim of our study was to further examine the nature of the association between major depression disorder (MDD) and metabolic disturbances, taking into account the possible influence of depression severity.
We conducted two meta-analyses fo existing literature on the cross sectional and longitudinal association between depression and obesity. Furthermore, we looked at different depression symptomatology patterns in relation to the MetSyn, using a dimensional approach. And finally, we compared inpatients and outpatients with regard to metabolic components and the presumed metabolic marker, cortisol.